List of 186 Coding Defects – Explained!


From web applications and mobile apps to complex systems powering critical infrastructure, the role of software is undeniable. However, amid the ever-growing complexity and demands of modern applications, the presence of coding defects has become an intrinsic challenge that developers and organizations must confront.

Coding defects, also known as software vulnerabilities or weaknesses, represent the flaws or errors in programming logic that can expose software systems to potential security breaches or functional failures. These defects can arise from a multitude of factors, including human error, time constraints, lack of expertise, or inadequate testing procedures.

Recognizing the significance of addressing these coding defects is paramount in ensuring the reliability, security, and integrity of software systems. By understanding the diverse types of coding defects and their potential implications, developers and organizations can take proactive measures to mitigate risks and safeguard their applications and data.

This article aims to shed light on the world of coding defects, exploring their nature, causes, and consequences. We will delve into the various categories of coding defects, examining their impact on software systems and the potential vulnerabilities they introduce. Through this exploration, we hope to equip developers and stakeholders with a comprehensive understanding of coding defects and empower them to take the necessary steps towards building robust and secure software solutions.

Whether you are a seasoned developer, an aspiring programmer, or an organization grappling with software vulnerabilities, this article will serve as a valuable resource to deepen your knowledge and reinforce the importance of prioritizing defect prevention and remediation throughout the software development lifecycle.

Let’s embark on this journey to unravel the hidden risks lurking in coding defects, and together, fortify the foundations of our software systems against potential threats.

Table of Contents

List of coding defects

Coding Defect Explanation
1. Off-by-One Error Accessing an array or loop index that is one position beyond the intended range.
2. Null Pointer Dereference Attempting to access or modify data through a null pointer.
3. Infinite Loop A loop that lacks a termination condition or fails to increment the loop counter.
4. Division by Zero Performing a division operation where the denominator is zero.
5. Memory Leak Failure to deallocate dynamically allocated memory, leading to excessive memory consumption.
6. Buffer Overflow Writing more data into a buffer than it can hold, causing adjacent memory corruption.
7. Stack Overflow Recursively calling a function without proper base case or termination condition, leading to exhausted stack space.
8. Integer Overflow Performing arithmetic operations that result in a value exceeding the maximum range of the data type.
9. Type Mismatch Assigning a value of one data type to a variable of a different data type without proper conversion.
10. Resource Leak Failure to release system resources (e.g., file handles, network connections) after use, leading to resource depletion.
11. Race Condition Multiple threads or processes accessing shared data simultaneously, leading to unexpected results or crashes.
12. Deadlock Two or more threads/processes waiting indefinitely for each other to release resources, causing a system halt.
13. SQL Injection Embedding malicious SQL commands within input data, allowing unauthorized access or manipulation of a database.
14. Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) Allowing unvalidated user input to be displayed as part of web page content, enabling execution of malicious scripts.
15. Command Injection Allowing unvalidated user input to be executed as a command by the underlying system, leading to unauthorized actions.
16. Insecure Direct Object References Exposing internal object references directly to users, allowing unauthorized access to protected resources.
17. Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF) Allowing an attacker to trick a user into performing unwanted actions in a web application on their behalf.
18. Unhandled Exception Failing to catch or handle exceptions, resulting in program termination or unexpected behavior.
19. Improper Error Handling Insufficient or misleading error messages, making it difficult to diagnose and fix issues.
20. Magic Numbers Using hard-coded numeric values without proper explanation or abstraction, making code less readable and maintainable.
21. Code Injection Allowing untrusted input to be executed as code, opening up security vulnerabilities.
22. Hard-Coded Credentials Storing sensitive authentication or access credentials directly in the source code.
23. Unvalidated Input Not properly validating user input, leading to potential security vulnerabilities or unexpected behavior.
24. Code Clones Duplicating code segments instead of using reusable functions or abstractions, making maintenance and bug fixing harder.
25. Cyclomatic Complexity Excessive branching and control flow in code, making it harder to understand and test.
26. Unreachable Code Code that can never be executed due to incorrect logic or conditional statements.
27. Unused Variables Declaring variables that are never used, resulting in unnecessary memory consumption.
28. Inconsistent Naming Conventions Using different naming styles or conventions for variables, functions, or classes, leading to confusion and reduced code readability.
29. Inefficient Algorithms Implementing algorithms with poor time or space complexity, resulting in slow or resource-intensive code.
30. Ignoring Compiler Warnings Disregarding warnings issued by the compiler, which may indicate potential issues or bugs.
31. Incorrect Function Signature Defining a function with incorrect parameter types, number of arguments, or return type, leading to unexpected behavior.
32. Uninitialized Variables Using variables before assigning them a valid initial value, resulting in unpredictable behavior.
33. Code Inconsistencies Having inconsistent coding styles, indentation, or formatting, making the codebase harder to read and maintain.
34. Unnecessary Type Conversions Performing unnecessary data type conversions, leading to potential loss of precision or performance degradation.
35. Ignoring Input Validation Failing to validate user input against expected formats or ranges, allowing for malformed or malicious data to cause issues.
36. Improper File Handling Mishandling files, such as not checking for file existence, not closing file handles, or not handling file I/O errors properly.
37. Excessive Commented-Out Code Leaving large sections of code commented out instead of removing them, cluttering the codebase and making it harder to understand.
38. Inconsistent Code Documentation Having inconsistent or outdated comments and documentation that do not accurately reflect the code’s functionality.
39. Mixing Business Logic with Presentation Mixing business logic and presentation code inappropriately, violating separation of concerns and hindering code maintainability.
40. Code Smells Indicators of potential problems in code, such as long methods, excessive parameters, or deeply nested conditionals.
41. Incorrect Regular Expressions Defining regular expressions with errors or incorrect patterns, leading to unexpected matches or failures.
42. Insecure Cryptography Implementing cryptography algorithms or protocols with known vulnerabilities, making the system susceptible to attacks.
43. Hard-Coded Configuration Values Embedding configuration settings directly in the code instead of using external configuration files, limiting flexibility and maintainability.
44. Inefficient Database Queries Writing database queries that are slow or retrieve more data than necessary, causing performance issues.
45. Ignoring Unit Tests Failing to write or update unit tests, reducing code quality and increasing the risk of introducing defects.
46. Incomplete Error Handling Not covering all possible error scenarios in error handling code, leading to unexpected program behavior or crashes.
47. Floating-Point Precision Issues Relying on precise floating-point arithmetic, which can result in rounding errors or inaccuracies.
48. Ignoring Security Best Practices Neglecting to follow established security guidelines and best practices, making the system vulnerable to attacks.
49. Inefficient String Manipulation Using inefficient methods to manipulate strings, leading to unnecessary memory allocations or slow performance.
50. Unnecessary Code Duplication Having redundant code segments that perform the same logic, increasing maintenance efforts and the risk of introducing inconsistencies.
51. Inconsistent Exception Handling Having inconsistent or improper handling of exceptions throughout the codebase, leading to unpredictable error propagation.
52. Insecure Random Number Generation Using weak or predictable random number generation algorithms, compromising the security of cryptographic operations or random-based decisions.
53. Ignoring Performance Optimization Opportunities Neglecting opportunities to optimize code for better performance, resulting in slower execution or inefficient resource usage.
54. Over-Engineering Overcomplicating code with unnecessary abstractions, design patterns, or features, making it harder to understand and maintain.
55. Inadequate Logging Insufficient or improper logging of application events, hindering troubleshooting and diagnostics in production environments.
56. Unprotected Sensitive Data Storing or transmitting sensitive data without proper encryption or protection, leading to privacy breaches or data leaks.
57. Inconsistent Exception Reporting Providing inconsistent or inadequate information in error messages or exception reports, making debugging more challenging.
58. Ignoring Code Review Feedback Disregarding feedback or suggestions from code reviews, missing opportunities to improve code quality and identify defects.
59. Insecure Session Management Weak or flawed session management practices, enabling session hijacking or unauthorized access to user accounts.
60. Inefficient Database Schema Design Designing database schemas that lead to poor query performance, inefficient data retrieval, or data integrity issues.
61. Hard-Coded URLs Embedding URLs directly in the code instead of using configuration files or constants, making the code less flexible and maintainable.
62. Missing Input Sanitization Neglecting to sanitize user input before using it, leaving the system vulnerable to injection attacks or unexpected behavior.
63. Poor Modularity Having code modules or components that are tightly coupled, making it difficult to reuse or replace parts of the system.
64. Inadequate Load Testing Failing to perform comprehensive load testing, leading to performance issues or system failures under heavy usage.
65. Unhandled Edge Cases Neglecting to handle or account for edge cases or exceptional scenarios in the code, resulting in unexpected behavior or crashes.
66. Inconsistent Use of Design Patterns Applying design patterns inconsistently or inappropriately, leading to code that is difficult to understand or maintain.
67. Insufficient Input Validation Performing only basic input validation without considering all possible attack vectors or validation criteria.
68. Insecure Serialization Serializing or deserializing data without proper validation or secure practices, exposing the system to remote code execution or data tampering.
69. Inadequate Test Coverage Having a low percentage of code covered by automated tests, increasing the risk of undetected defects or regressions.
70. Inefficient File I/O Operations Performing file I/O operations in an inefficient manner, causing delays or excessive resource usage.
71. Violation of Single Responsibility Principle Having classes or functions that take on multiple responsibilities, making the code harder to understand and maintain.
72. Improper Caching Implementing caching mechanisms without considering cache expiration, invalidation, or memory usage, leading to stale or inefficient data.
73. Ignoring Code Refactoring Opportunities Neglecting opportunities to refactor code for improved clarity, maintainability, or performance.
74. Inconsistent Error Handling Handling errors differently in various parts of the codebase, leading to confusion and potential bugs.
75. Insecure File Permissions Setting improper file permissions, allowing unauthorized access or modification of sensitive files.
76. Ignoring Localization Considerations Neglecting to design code and user interfaces with localization and internationalization in mind, hindering global usability.
77. Hard-Coded Business Rules Embedding business rules directly in the code instead of configurable or customizable options, making it harder to adapt to changes.
78. Unnecessary Data Retrieval Retrieving more data from databases or external sources than necessary, resulting in slower performance or increased resource usage.
79. Inadequate Backup and Recovery Lacking proper backup and recovery mechanisms, putting critical data at risk of loss or corruption.
80. Inconsistent Error Logging Logging errors or exceptions inconsistently across the codebase, making it difficult to track and diagnose issues.
81. Insecure Interprocess Communication Implementing insecure communication channels between different processes or modules, exposing sensitive data or allowing unauthorized access.
82. Inefficient Memory Usage Mishandling memory resources, such as excessive allocations, unnecessary copies, or memory leaks, leading to performance degradation.
83. Ignoring Security Patches and Updates Failing to apply security patches or updates to libraries, frameworks, or dependencies, leaving the system vulnerable to known vulnerabilities.
84. Inadequate Error Recovery Not providing appropriate error recovery mechanisms or fallback options, leading to system instability or data loss.
85. Inconsistent Date and Time Handling Mishandling date and time operations, leading to incorrect calculations, time zone issues, or inaccurate results.
86. Insecure Interfacing with External Systems Interfacing with external systems in an insecure manner, exposing sensitive data or allowing unauthorized access.
87. Inadequate Performance Monitoring Failing to monitor and analyze system performance, making it difficult to identify and address bottlenecks or scalability issues.
88. Implicit Dependencies Relying on implicit dependencies between components or modules, making the codebase fragile and harder to maintain.
89. Insecure Default Configurations Providing insecure default configurations for applications or systems, increasing the risk of unauthorized access or data breaches.
90. Ignoring Code Documentation Standards Neglecting to follow established code documentation standards or guidelines, making the codebase harder to understand and maintain.
91. Inefficient Database Indexing Failing to create appropriate indexes on database tables, resulting in slow query performance or unnecessary table scans.
92. Violation of Open/Closed Principle Designing code that is not easily extendable or modifiable without modifying existing code, increasing the risk of introducing defects.
93. Insecure Third-Party Integrations Integrating with external services or libraries that have known security vulnerabilities, compromising the system’s security posture.
94. Ignoring Input Boundary Testing Neglecting to test input values at their minimum, maximum, or boundary limits, missing potential defects or vulnerabilities.
95. Inadequate Disaster Recovery Planning Failing to have proper plans and procedures in place for recovering from catastrophic failures or disasters.
96. Insecure Cross-Domain Communication Allowing insecure communication or data sharing between different security domains, risking data leakage or unauthorized access.
97. Inefficient Algorithmic Complexity Implementing algorithms with high time or space complexity, leading to poor performance on large datasets or input sizes.
98. Ignoring Data Validation Rules Not enforcing or validating data integrity and constraints, allowing inconsistent or invalid data to be stored or processed.
99. Insecure Serialization of Web Data Serializing or deserializing web data in an insecure manner, exposing the system to attacks such as code injection or cross-site scripting.
100. Unreleased Resources Failing to close or release resources such as file handles, network connections, or database connections after use, leading to resource exhaustion or instability.
101. Unprotected Remote Procedure Calls (RPC) Performing remote procedure calls without proper authentication or encryption, exposing sensitive data or allowing unauthorized access.
102. Incorrect Handling of Decimal Numbers Mishandling decimal numbers due to precision loss, rounding errors, or incorrect calculations.
103. Hard-Coded File Paths Embedding file paths directly in the code instead of using configurable or platform-independent alternatives, limiting portability and maintainability.
104. Insecure Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS) Allowing unauthorized cross-origin resource sharing, potentially enabling cross-site scripting attacks or unauthorized data access.
105. Improper Handling of Concurrent Data Access Insufficient synchronization or locking mechanisms when multiple threads or processes access shared data concurrently, leading to data corruption or inconsistencies.
106. Inadequate Input Sanitization for Database Queries Failing to properly sanitize input used in database queries, leaving the system vulnerable to SQL injection attacks.
107. Incorrect Data Type Conversions Performing incorrect or inconsistent data type conversions, leading to data loss, unexpected behavior, or security vulnerabilities.
108. Unsecured Communication Protocols Using insecure communication protocols, such as plain HTTP instead of HTTPS, allowing interception or tampering of sensitive data.
109. Inconsistent Handling of Date and Time Zones Mishandling time zone conversions or comparisons, resulting in incorrect date and time calculations or data inconsistencies.
110. Missing or Inadequate Input Validation for API Endpoints Failing to validate and sanitize input data for exposed API endpoints, risking security vulnerabilities or unexpected behavior.
111. Unhandled Database Connection Failures Not properly handling failures to establish or maintain database connections, leading to application downtime or data access issues.
112. Insecure Cross-Site WebSocket Hijacking Allowing WebSocket connections to be hijacked by malicious actors, enabling unauthorized access or data manipulation.
113. Incorrect Bitwise Operations Performing bitwise operations with incorrect operands or using the wrong operators, leading to unexpected results or logical errors.
114. Inadequate Error Reporting Not providing sufficient information or context in error messages or logs, making it challenging to diagnose and fix issues.
115. Insecure Object Serialization Serializing or deserializing objects without proper validation or integrity checks, allowing for deserialization attacks or remote code execution.
116. Insufficient Protection Against Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF) Not implementing appropriate measures, such as CSRF tokens, to prevent CSRF attacks, potentially leading to unauthorized actions on behalf of users.
117. Incorrect Handling of Unicode Characters Mishandling Unicode characters, leading to encoding or decoding errors, display issues, or security vulnerabilities.
118. Insecure Default Permissions for Files or Directories Setting insecure default permissions for files or directories, allowing unauthorized access or modification.
119. Unoptimized Database Joins Writing inefficient database join operations, resulting in slow query execution or excessive resource usage.
120. Violation of Least Privilege Principle Assigning excessive privileges or access rights to users, processes, or components, increasing the attack surface and potential impact of security breaches.
121. Inconsistent Handling of Decimal Separators Mishandling decimal separators (e.g., comma vs. dot) in different locales, leading to data parsing or formatting errors.
122. Unencrypted or Weakly Encrypted Data Storage Storing sensitive data without proper encryption or using weak encryption algorithms, risking data breaches or unauthorized access.
123. Inadequate Input Validation for File Uploads Failing to validate and sanitize input data for uploaded files, allowing for malicious files or security bypasses.
124. Unprotected Configuration Files Storing configuration files with sensitive information (e.g., credentials, API keys) without proper access controls or encryption.
125. Inconsistent Exception Handling Strategies Applying different exception handling strategies inconsistently throughout the codebase, leading to confusion and error propagation issues.
126. Insecure Dynamic Code Execution Allowing the execution of dynamically generated or user-provided code without proper sandboxing or validation, introducing security risks.
127. Violation of the Principle of Least Astonishment Implementing code behavior that surprises or confuses users or other developers due to unexpected results or inconsistent conventions.
128. Inadequate Protection Against Cross-Site Script Inclusion (XSSI) Not implementing proper safeguards to prevent Cross-Site Script Inclusion attacks, risking the exposure of sensitive information.
129. Unnecessary or Inefficient Data Serialization Performing unnecessary or inefficient data serialization or deserialization, resulting in decreased performance or resource consumption.
130. Insecure Direct Memory Access (DMA) Allowing unauthorized direct access to system memory, potentially leading to information disclosure or system compromise.
131. Inefficient Resource Allocation Inefficiently allocating system resources, such as threads, processes, or memory, leading to resource contention or suboptimal performance.
132. Violation of the Single Level of Abstraction Principle (SLAP) Mixing different levels of abstraction within a code segment, making it harder to understand and maintain.
133. Unvalidated or Insecure Redirects Performing redirects without proper validation or safeguards, enabling open redirects or phishing attacks.
134. Inadequate Handling of Large Data Sets Failing to implement proper pagination or streaming mechanisms for processing large data sets, leading to performance issues or resource exhaustion.
135. Violation of the Dependency Inversion Principle Having high-level modules depend directly on low-level modules, violating the principle of dependency inversion and hindering extensibility.
136. Insecure Cross-Site Printing (XSP) Allowing unauthorized injection or manipulation of content in printouts, risking the exposure of sensitive information or malicious code execution.
137. Inefficient String Concatenation Using inefficient string concatenation methods, such as repeated string concatenation in loops, resulting in performance degradation.
138. Insecure Key Generation for Cryptographic Operations Generating cryptographic keys using weak or predictable methods, compromising the security of encryption or authentication mechanisms.
139. Unprotected In-Memory Data Storing sensitive data in memory without proper encryption or access controls, leaving it vulnerable to unauthorized access or extraction.
140. Inadequate Secure Coding Training Insufficient training or awareness of secure coding practices among developers, increasing the likelihood of introducing security vulnerabilities.
141. Violation of the Interface Segregation Principle Creating interfaces with too many methods or dependencies, violating the principle of interface segregation and leading to tight coupling.
142. Insecure Use of Temporary Files Creating or using temporary files in an insecure manner, allowing unauthorized access or leading to information leakage.
143. Inconsistent Exception Naming Conventions Using inconsistent or unclear exception names, making it harder to understand the nature or severity of thrown exceptions.
144. Violation of the Liskov Substitution Principle Failing to adhere to the Liskov Substitution Principle, resulting in unexpected behavior when substituting derived classes for base classes.
145. Inadequate Input Validation for Command-Line Arguments Not properly validating and sanitizing command-line arguments, leaving the system vulnerable to command injection or unexpected behavior.
146. Unprotected In-App Purchase Mechanisms Implementing in-app purchases or microtransactions without proper security measures, allowing for unauthorized purchases or fraud.
147. Inefficient Logging Mechanisms Implementing logging mechanisms that are resource-intensive or produce excessive log output, impacting performance or disk space.
148. Ignoring Usability Guidelines Neglecting user experience and usability guidelines, resulting in a suboptimal or confusing user interface.
149. Insecure Cross-Site History Manipulation (XSHM) Allowing manipulation of the browser’s history, enabling phishing attacks or unauthorized navigation between different application states.
150. Violation of the Interface Contract Not adhering to the contract or documentation specified by an interface, leading to unexpected behavior or API misuse.
Coding Defect Explanation
151. Unprotected Inter-Process Communication (IPC) Implementing insecure or unauthenticated communication channels between processes, allowing unauthorized access or data interception.
152. Inefficient Database Indexing Strategy Choosing inappropriate or ineffective indexing strategies for database tables, resulting in suboptimal query performance.
153. Violation of the Law of Demeter Creating code with excessive dependencies between objects or modules, leading to tight coupling and reduced maintainability.
154. Insecure Cross-Site Printing (XS-Print) Allowing unauthorized content injection or manipulation in printed documents, potentially leading to sensitive information exposure or unauthorized code execution.
155. Inadequate Protection Against Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attacks Not implementing proper measures to mitigate or handle DDoS attacks, leaving the system vulnerable to service disruptions or unavailability.
156. Inconsistent Handling of Input Character Encodings Mishandling character encodings for input data, leading to data corruption, processing errors, or security vulnerabilities.
157. Hard-Coded API Keys Embedding API keys directly in the code instead of using secure and configurable methods, risking unauthorized access or key exposure.
158. Insufficient Load Balancing and Scalability Planning Neglecting to implement proper load balancing mechanisms or plan for scalability, resulting in performance issues or system overload.
159. Insecure Interactions with External Services Interacting with external services in an insecure manner, such as transmitting sensitive data without encryption or proper authentication.
160. Incorrect Handling of Timeouts Mishandling timeouts in network or system operations, leading to excessive delays, unresponsive behavior, or resource exhaustion.
161. Violation of the Principle of Immutability Modifying data or objects that should be treated as immutable, leading to unexpected behavior or data integrity issues.
162. Unprotected Debug Information Including debug information in production code or not stripping sensitive information from debugging symbols, risking exposure of sensitive data or code structure.
163. Inefficient Resource Allocation in Distributed Systems Poor allocation of resources in distributed systems, resulting in resource bottlenecks, inefficient utilization, or performance degradation.
164. Ignoring Database Transactions and Concurrency Control Neglecting to use transactions or proper concurrency control mechanisms, leading to data inconsistencies or conflicts in multi-user environments.
165. Inadequate Failure Handling for External Service Dependencies Not handling failures or timeouts properly when interacting with external services, potentially causing cascading failures or data loss.
166. Unsecured Inter-Process Communication (IPC) Implementing insecure or unencrypted communication channels between processes, allowing eavesdropping or unauthorized access to sensitive information.
167. Inefficient Regular Expressions Writing regular expressions with inefficient patterns or excessive backtracking, leading to slow performance or even denial-of-service attacks.
168. Violation of the Hollywood Principle (“Don’t call us, we’ll call you”) Violating the principle of loose coupling by allowing lower-level components to directly call or depend on higher-level components.
169. Insecure Object Deserialization Deserializing objects from untrusted sources without proper validation or integrity checks, enabling deserialization attacks or remote code execution.
170. Inadequate Data Backup and Recovery Testing Neglecting to regularly test data backup and recovery procedures, risking the integrity and availability of critical data in case of failures.
171. Violation of the Principle of Information Hiding Exposing internal implementation details or data structures, breaking encapsulation and potentially compromising the integrity of the system.
172. Insecure Generation of Temporary or Random Values Generating temporary or random values using insecure or predictable methods, compromising the security of cryptographic operations or session management.
173. Inefficient Memory Management in Resource-Constrained Environments Poor memory management practices in resource-constrained environments, such as embedded systems, leading to memory leaks or system instability.
174. Unprotected Remote Administration Interfaces Exposing remote administration interfaces without proper authentication, encryption, or access controls, risking unauthorized access or control.
175. Ignoring Security-Related HTTP Headers Failing to set or configure security-related HTTP headers, such as Content Security Policy (CSP) or Strict-Transport-Security (HSTS), leaving the system vulnerable to attacks.
176. Inadequate Session Timeout Handling Mishandling session timeouts, leading to security vulnerabilities or user experience issues due to premature or indefinite session expiration.
177. Unvalidated Redirects and Forwards Performing redirects or forwards without proper validation or checks, exposing the system to open redirect or phishing attacks.
178. Inefficient Input/Output Operations Inefficient handling of input/output operations, such as reading or writing files, network communication, or disk operations, resulting in performance bottlenecks.
179. Violation of the Robustness Principle (Postel’s Law) Implementing strict input validation or output constraints that deviate from lenient interoperability standards, causing compatibility issues.
180. Insecure Handling of User Authentication Credentials Mishandling or storing user authentication credentials in an insecure manner, such as plaintext or weakly hashed passwords, risking unauthorized access or data breaches.
181. Ignoring Cross-Browser Compatibility Neglecting to ensure proper cross-browser compatibility, resulting in rendering or functionality issues in different web browsers.
182. Insecure Cross-Site WebSocket Hijacking (XSWH) Allowing WebSocket connections to be hijacked or manipulated by unauthorized parties, risking data exposure or unauthorized actions.
183. Inefficient Thread Synchronization Using inefficient or ineffective synchronization mechanisms when working with threads, leading to race conditions, deadlocks, or performance issues.
184. Unprotected Local Storage or Caching Mechanisms Storing sensitive data in local storage or caching mechanisms without proper encryption or access controls, risking unauthorized access or data exposure.
185. Inadequate Handling of Runtime Environment Changes Failing to gracefully handle runtime environment changes, such as network disconnections or configuration updates, resulting in unexpected behavior or crashes.
186. Violation of the Principle of Composition Over Inheritance Overusing or misusing inheritance instead of favoring composition, leading to inflexible code structures and difficulty in code reuse.
By Expert2News

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